Saturday, 13 May 2017

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental illness characterized by by periods of deep, prolonged, and profound depression that alternate with periods of an excessively elevated or irritable mood known as mania.
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There are two types: Bipolar I and Bipolar II.
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A person affected by bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. Often, there is a pattern of cycling between mania and depression. This is where the term "manic depression" comes from.
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Patients with bipolar II disorder present with one or more episodes of major depression with at least one hypomanic episode.
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Diagnostically, mania must be at least seven days whereas hypomania has to be at least 4 days. Also, if “the episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in functioning, or to necessitate hospitalization, and there are no psychotic features, it is termed hypomania.
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However, it is important to note that once a patient exhibits "complete" mania, they have BPD I.
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Mood stabilisers (Lithium), Anticonvulsants (valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) and antipsychotics such as risperidone, quetiapine are  used in treatment of BPD. Most patients continue this treatment for life to avoid a relapse.
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N.B: SSRIs, SNRIs are not usually used even when the patient is in a depressed state because it could tilt the patient to mania.
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Post inspired by @_sochukwu, @okoene1234 and @wiz.dumb_


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