Monday, 26 December 2016

A very Rare medical condition!!

Cystic hydatid disease is endemic in livestock-raising countries and results from infection with the larval or adult form of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm.
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The most common sites of hydatid cysts are the liver (in 50%–70% of cases), lungs (5%–30%), muscles (5%), bones (3%), kidneys (2%), spleen (1%), and brain (1%). Cardiac involvement is seen only in 0.5% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease.

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Humans become infected by ingesting tapeworm eggs passed from an infected carnivore. This occurs most frequently when individuals handle or contact infected dogs or other infected carnivores or inadvertently ingest food or drink contaminated with fecal material containing tapeworm eggs.
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The coronary circulation is the main pathway by which the parasitic larvae reach the heart. Because of a rich coronary blood supply, the left ventricle is the site of cardiac hydatid cysts in 55% to 60% of cases.
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MONTHS or YEARS may pass before an individual exhibits any signs or symptoms of infection with the cystic larval stages. .
Hydatid disease often present with cough. However, cardiac hydatid cysts are usually asymptomatic, especially in their early stages, and only 10% of patients have clinical symptoms like chest pain, palpitations, cough and dyspnea.
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Routine laboratory tests do not show specific results. ELISA is one of the most specific serologic tests that can be used, and a positive result for echinococcus antibodies [IgG]) confirms the diagnosis.
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On imaging, chest radiographs usually show a normal cardiothoracic ratio. Electrocardiographic findings vary according to the sites of the cysts and Echocardiography is also useful in the diagnosis of cardiac hydatid cysts. A CT scan and MRI can show the extent and anatomic relationships of the cysts.
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