Causative factors associated with a face presentation are similar to those leading to general malpresentation and those that prevent head flexion or favour extension.
Possible aetiology includes:
- Multiple gestations
- Grand multiparity- Multiparity or a large abdomen can cause decreased uterine tone, leading to natural extension of the fetal head.
- Foetal malformations such as hydrocephalus, anencephaly, and neck masses
- Cephalopelvic disproportion from either a small pelvis or a large foetus.
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